Various operations for diseases of the lungs, oesophagus, and chest wall are included in cardiothoracic surgery, as well as minimally invasive and open heart procedures for valve repair and replacement, coronary artery bypasses, and other procedures. Heart valve disease, coronary artery disease, aortic aneurysm, atrial fibrillation, heart failure, congenital heart disease, achalasia, oesophageal cancer, GERD/hiatal hernia, lung cancer, mediastinal tumours, and benign and malignant airway problems are among the conditions treated during cardiothoracic surgery.