Colorectal surgery is a subspecialty of general surgery that focuses on surgical procedures involving the colon, rectum, anus, and pelvic floor. These procedures are often performed to treat a wide range of conditions related to the lower digestive tract, including cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, diverticulitis, and rectal prolapse. Minimally invasive techniques, such as laparoscopic and robotic surgery, are also available for many of these procedures.
Endoscopy and colonoscopy are diagnostic procedures commonly used in colorectal surgery. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy examines the lining of the oesophagus, stomach, and duodenum using a small endoscope passed through the mouth. A flexible sigmoidoscopy uses a fibre-optic camera to examine the rectum, sigmoid, and colon to screen for colorectal cancer and look for bleeding or noncancerous growths like polyps. Colonoscopy is a more extensive procedure that involves inserting a long, flexible colonoscope through the rectum to diagnose colon and rectal problems, perform biopsies, and remove noncancerous growths.